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Ichthyofauna of lakes and reservoirs of the Valdai National Park is represented by 40−45 species of fish. The most common inhabitants of lakes and rivers are pike, bream, ide, whitefish, vendace, burbot, pike perch, common catfish, snail (European smelt), common eel, tench, common asp, carp, golden and silver crucian carp. The inhabitants of the small stony rivers of the park are considered to be rare: European grayling, trout, European brook lamprey and ordinary stump (the latter is listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation). In Lake Boroye, which is located near the village of Korotskoy, on the border of Valdai Eco Club territory, there are about 20 species of fish, the most common of which are:

Pike (Latin Esox)

Pike is a genus of freshwater fish, unique in the pike family (Esocidae). A typical species of the genus is Esox lucius (common pike). Pikes can reach 1.8 m in length and 67 kg in weight, although larger specimens are also found. Life expectancy of individuals can reach up to 30 years. Pikes are extremely voracious predators. They feed mainly on fish (roach, perch, minnow). Pike is characterized by cannibalism: about 20% of its diet is made up of smaller individuals of its own kind. In addition, pikes feed on amphibians and reptiles, large insects and various debris. Small mammals, for example, mice or moles, caught in water can become their prey. Pike hunting for small waterfowl and their chicks. This predator attacks animals that reach 1/3 of its own size. Usually keeps in the coastal zone among thickets of aquatic vegetation, where they catch up with prey. Several types of catching are used to catch the pike, the most common of which is fishing for spinning. When fishing for spinning for pike baits, such gear as wobblers, silicone fishes, rippers, twisters, various blestes are used. Also, catching on the live poultry with the use of fishing rods, circles, stubs, donok, path, trolling is also common. The pike is caught all day long, however for most reservoirs there are its best hours of biting. Large pike often takes in the morning, and in windy weather — in the middle of the day. On gray days, with small rains, fishing is more successful than in clear weather.

Reddish (Latin Scardinius erythrophthalmus)

Krasnopyorka is a small freshwater fish of the Cyprinidae family. He prefers lakes. In rivers he chooses places with a weak current, overgrown with reeds and other plants. It feeds mainly on filamentous algae, but adults can also eat animal food (crustaceans, mollusks caviar, insect larvae, worms, caviar and fish fry). The length of the body of the ruddle can reach 36 cm, and the maximum known weight is 2 kg; usual sizes 16−19 cm and weight 100−300 g. Lifespan — up to 10 years. Catch the red ripple from the shore on a fishing rod, folding or solid. A large reddish is best taken in the reeds of reeds and reeds. The bait for a red-rind does little good, probably because in the summer it does not look for food at the bottom and is generally full; but during catching it does not stop occasionally to throw bread crumbs or little by little the grains of steam rye. The crest of the rudd is very true; Only a small two-year-old fish drags and tweaks the nozzle; the medium and large immediately swallow the nozzle. It is necessary to pull out the ruddy carefully, as when catching small hooks it is easy to tear off the mucous membrane of the sky, for which they usually hook.

Carp (Latin Carassius)

Carp is the genus of fish of the Cyprinidae family, 2 species are golden, or common, Carassius carassius and Carassius auratus. Goldfish can reach body length of more than 50 cm and weight over 3 kg, silver crucian — length 40 cm and weight up to 2 kg. Externally, the gold and silver crucian carp are similar. In the reservoirs where both species live together, the golden crucian is gradually replaced by silver. Carp lives in well-heated reservoirs with standing water and a soft bottom; in rivers, it is rare, holds on sites with a slow flow. Prefers overgrown areas. It occurs in old river channels, quiet creeks, deep pits and flooded quarries, in ponds. For the most part it keeps at the bottom. Well tolerates the freezing and temporary drying of water bodies, burrowing deep into the mud. It feeds on larvae of chironomids (bloodworms) and other insects, small mollusks, worms, algae, detritus. Crucian, especially large, is a rather cautious fish, and catching it on a rough tackle is rarely successful. A fishing rod for carp fishing must meet several conditions. First of all, it must be well balanced and have the most delicate broom, which is very important for a strong side wind. Also, the fishing rod should have the smallest possible weight and a fairly rigid system, so that when the first desperate jerks are not allowed to bring the carcass to a tackle in the algae. The length of the rods should be at least 5−6 meters, as the large carp prefers not to approach close to the fisherman sitting on the shore.

Earsch (Latin Gymnocephalus cernuus)

Ruff is a species of fish from the Percidae family, a standard species of the genus Ersh. Freshwater fish, inhabiting lakes, dams, near river banks, prefer sandy bottom or gravel. The length of adult fish is approximately 100 mm (10 cm). Females of the ruffus live up to a maximum of 11 years, and males basically do not survive for seven years. Ruff is a typical benthophagus, very plastic in the choice of food. His favorite food is larvae of chironomids and gammarids, but with their lack of water, it easily switches to other types of food, especially since the assortment of its feed organisms includes all forms of zooplankton and fish food (caviar and juvenile fish). With age, the size of consumed organisms increases, the largest individuals become predators. They catch their ruffs with simple gear nearly all year round. The most active biting at the end of winter is from under the ice, moderate in the spring, after the fall of water, and in the autumn. Overcast — the ruffles are caught all day, on clear days — in the morning and in the evening. Good results are given by bait, especially bloodworms, chopped worms. Catching a ruff is quite simple. Apply float fishing rod, catch and mormyshku. On an artificial bait, he bites more often, and swallows it less often. To be afraid that he will spit out the bait or leave the hook, there is no reason. To cut it is necessary at the slightest movement of the float or the change in the position of the nod. Otherwise, the ruff will have time to swallow the nozzle and is quite deep. No wonder they call ruffs «swallows». The hook should be with a long forearm and larger than for other fish of the same size.

Perch Perch (Latin Perca)

Perch — a fish of the genus of perches of the percidae family, a group of percids. Perch — lake-river species, adapted to life in the coastal thicket zone of the reservoir. The maximum age is 17 years, length — 51 cm and weight — 4.8 kg. Usually in commercial catches, individuals up to 30 cm in length predominate, on average 15−20 cm and weighing 200−300 g at the age of 4−6 years. Perch feeds on zooplankton, benthic organisms and young fish of different species, which replace each other in the diet as it grows. In different water bodies the food of the perch differs significantly, due to the composition of the forage reserve. In some reservoirs, perch throughout life consumes zooplankton, or remains benthophagous, without passing on predation. Perch is less afraid of noise than other fish species. This fish is greedy and bold. In float fishing, the most suitable rod is a 4−7 m long rod, equipped with a high-quality 0.08 mm diameter fishing line and a No. 2 0 hook. The tactics of catching are the constant search for fish, focusing on the places of school hunting (battle). As a bait, the most common are worms, bloodworms, caddisfly larvae, leech, and on large rivers — spittle. Sometimes a bait consisting of a small or large joker is needed. As a nozzle for a large perch is also used zhivets (small fish) — often the top or bleak. For vegetable attachments perch with very few exceptions does not occur.

Yaz (Latin Leuciscus idus)

Yaz is a fish of the carp family. Yaz lives in rivers and lakes, prefers deep creeks with a slow flow, pits and whirlpools, places with clay and silted soils. The schooling fish. Yaz stands in pits with a cartilaginous or silty-clayey bottom, it gathers near bridges, sunken snags; especially likes to stand beside whirlpools below the dams, from where it comes to the ruts and to places with fast current for feeding. Often the idol walks around the coast, especially after heavy rains. Lives up to 15−20 years. It can reach a length of up to 1 m and a weight of 6−8 kg, but the usual dimensions are 30−50 cm and weight about 1 kg. Yaz is considered a fish non-trivial, but in reality, having reached a weight of 300−400 g, he already partially eats small fry, and in adulthood becomes a real predator. Eats falling into the water of insects, molting crayfish, earthworms, insect larvae, small mollusks and small fish. Yaz — a schooling fish. On the spinning it is caught from spring and almost to the freeze-up. It begins at dawn and lasts until 11 am. The best results are obtained by catching the morning and evening dawns. Since the ancestor feeds also at the beginning of the night, catching it at this time can turn out to be very lethal; If an angler is able to cast blindly, then he should use this circumstance. When planting an ide starts to somersault in one place, showing a fairly significant, but short-term persistence. Quickly tired, he stops resistance and floats to the surface of the water. Bringing it close to the shore, he repeats his maneuver with the last force, after which he can be safely pulled ashore.

Sudak (Latin Sander, formerly Stizostedion)

Sudak is one of the nine genera of the percids family. Pike perch lives in rivers and lakes. It is very sensitive to reducing the oxygen content in water. Of the contaminated areas of water bodies, he tries to leave, in the constantly polluted water bodies there is no. It is kept mainly in deep places of rivers and lakes, where the bottom is weakly silted, sandy or cartilaginous-clayey. Usually dwells in pits among the snags, lying on the bottom of stones, near steep banks. They leave them only in the morning and in the evening, when they rise to the surface of the water or go out to the hills to hunt for fish. Places with vegetation avoids. Among the thickets can live only young pike perches. According to official data, individuals of more than a meter in length and weighing up to 10−15 kg are found. By way of life, pike perch is a typical predator. It feeds on fish, and small individuals also eat aquatic invertebrates. The basis of nutrition is usually fish with a narrow body. As a rule, these are bullheads, minnows, bleak or tullet. These same fish are used when catching pike perch. Pike perch is very well caught on spinning, and can also be caught on mugs or dunk. You can catch pike perch either from the shore or from the boat. The depth of the fishing place should be up to 5 m, the fishing rod is long, the fishing line is sturdy, slightly longer than the rod, the float is selected from a tree, the size of a small egg; The sinker should support the float in a standing position.

Roach (Latin Rutilus rutilus)

Roach is a species of fish from the Cyprinidae family (Cyprinidae). The Roach inhabits rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, canals, estuaries. Prefers the areas overgrown with vegetation. Keeps on the border of thickets and open water in places with a moderate current and warm water. The schooling fish. Lives up to 20 years. The tuber form reaches a length of 35 cm and a mass of 1.3 kg. Semipermeable forms are larger: length up to 51 cm, weight up to 2 kg. According to the nature of food roach — euryfag. Adult individuals eat a variety of invertebrates and their larvae, mollusks, in summer consume a lot of filamentous algae, and with an abundance of fry, a large roach feeds on larvae and fry of fish. A float rod is an ordinary fishing tackle for roach fishing. Designing rods for roach fishing requires accuracy. The main line is applied with a thickness of not more than 0.15−0.18 mm. The lead is cross-section 0,08−0,10 mm, the hooks are sharp, preferably bronzed, size 2, 5−4. The float should be small and have a camouflage color. Birds catch roach only in places where it is possible to capture a large fish with a mass of 200−400 g. Gear should be sensitive, with leashes 50−70mm. Vegetable attachments for these gears are not suitable, because roach will knock it off the hook and the fisherman will not be able to make timely cuts. The place of fishing is chosen in the clearings of coastal vegetation. Bait roach is absolutely necessary. Most often as a bait used all sorts of vegetable mixtures.

Pelada, or cheese (Latin Coregonus peled)

Pelyad — lake-river fish, genus of whitefish. Pelyad — «lake fish of Eurasia» — inhabits most of the large lakes of the Russian North and Siberia, but spawns into rivers or falls into shallows. In the reservoir holds in the water column, collecting here small pelagic crustaceans. Limit age peljadi 13 years, but in most populations of fish older than 10 years are rare. Pelyad — schooling fish, it is very timid, so it is recommended that fishermen toss the nozzle away from the shore and must be camouflaged in the coastal vegetation. Privada and bait usually do not apply.

Trout (Latin S. fario or S. lacustris)

Trout — Salmo genus species establishment is extremely difficult due to their proximity to each other and the existence of a variety of species. Therefore, the species autonomy of the trout was often questioned: so a real or river trout (S. fario) is often considered identical with a lake trout (S. lacustris). Trout is a cold-water fish. Prefers pure, clear waters. Optimal parameters of the environment, at which growth and development are most successful, are water temperature 14−20 ° C and oxygen content 7−8 mg / l. Trout avoids brightly lit areas, hides in the shade, goes to the depth. Long stay in the light leads to trout in a depressed state, and eggs and fry die. Therefore, it is most active on cloudy days, as well as in the evening and in the morning. The length of the body of a trout is 25−85 cm, weight 0.2−4 kg and more, in the age of 12−13 years up to 10−12 kg. An adult trout is a predator. The food for the trout is small crustaceans and larvae of aquatic insects, caddis flies, small mollusks, insects, small fish, tadpoles, frogs and even small mammals that inadvertently swim the river. Trout feed mainly in the morning and in the evening, while often jumping out of the water for flying insects. Often they eat fish eggs, including their own, if it is insufficiently well-sheltered. Large individuals do not mind eating their own young. The most abundant food for trout is obtained during a strong wind and thunderstorms, when a large number of insects are blown to the water. It is at this time that trout are very active and walk near the surface. For catching trout, small rotating or flapping spoons weighing not more than 10 g, as well as wobblers up to 10 cm long are used. As practice shows, the largest trout can be caught most often in the spring. At this time, since the trout hunting season is just beginning, it is not so cautious and can be found in relatively accessible places. After the flood, the fish goes to their so-called summer places and large specimens are much harder to discover. At the beginning of the season, the greatest chances of catching trout are with the slow and deep wiring of a spoon bait near the bottom. Since this technique requires that the bait is relatively heavy, fly fishing in trout in the spring is rather difficult. The chances of spinners and flyers increase significantly in May and June, when it gets warmer. Warming of water and air is accompanied by the appearance of an abundance of insects, and wandering nymphs appear in the pond. At the beginning of the season the greatest chance of catching trout is given by the slow and deep wiring of the spoon-bait near the bottom. Since this technique requires that the bait is relatively heavy, the fly fishing in trout in the spring is rather difficult. Sometimes this can be done with the use of sinking cords, using as a bait various artificial larvae, nymphs, as well as flies imitating fry, streamers.

Bream (Latin Abramis brama)

Bream — synonyms, obsolete names, subspecies, forms: a scribe — a young individual, a Chebak — an old specimen; Cyprinus Brama. It prefers slowly flowing ponds and lakes. He leads a schooling lifestyle. Lives up to 20 years, usually up to 12−14 years. It can reach a length of 75−80 cm and a weight of 6−9 kg. Usual sizes 25−45 cm and weight 0.5−1.5 kg. It mainly feeds on bottom invertebrates (insect larvae, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, etc.). The retractable mouth enables the bream to extract food from the ground to a depth of 5−10 cm. A large bream can eat juvenile fish. Bream is very careful, timid and clever fish. Even with insignificant noise, at the very height of spawning, breams leave the bay and no longer return to it, at least this year; Being captured by a seine, the bream rarely jumps over it (as can be seen from the warehouse itself, it can not make large jumps), but lies quietly on the bottom, lies sideways and, if the bottom has irregularities and depressions, often manages to turn under the bottom string. It is a sluggish and lazy fish; its movements are slow and heavy; it mostly keeps on the very bottom of quiet and shallow waters and is seen on the surface. b.h. during the spawning season, less in other seasons. Melts bream usually quiet in the evenings, especially after prolonged bad weather. In some places on rivers bream pack periodically go aground, advantageously in quieter cloudy days, often float up to the surface. Similarly, bream shoals to rinse from the heat, especially before the storm, even in midday. Most frequently observed bream during t. N. broom falls, which makes up the varnish of his food. Bream catch throughout the year, in the summer — and from the boat and from the shore, using a variety of float and bottom fishing rods. In spring and autumn is a lucky catch bream in the summer fishing tackle with a lateral nod and jig. To do this, choose a place where coastal vegetation comes close to great depths. Posting a jig with the smooth rocking, often with a small separation from the bottom. Lakes and reservoirs bream caught from the boat, setting it on the table (the so-called extensive flat bottom area), where in search of food, loves to go out this fish. Typically, a mixture of vegetable baits or simply soaked pieces of hard bread, in which a fine-mesh grid is lowered onto the bottom, tied to the buoy. With the boat at a sufficient depth easier to catch on board a fishing rod equipped with a nod and a jig or a float rig. If the depth beneath you a little, so as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafinstalling it over the tables (so-called extensive flat bottom area), where in search of food, loves to go out this fish. Typically, a mixture of vegetable baits or simply soaked pieces of hard bread, in which a fine-mesh grid is lowered onto the bottom, tied to the buoy. With the boat at a sufficient depth easier to catch on board a fishing rod equipped with a nod and a jig or a float rig. If the depth beneath you a little, so as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafinstalling it over the tables (so-called extensive flat bottom area), where in search of food, loves to go out this fish. Typically, a mixture of vegetable baits or simply soaked pieces of hard bread, in which a fine-mesh grid is lowered onto the bottom, tied to the buoy. With the boat at a sufficient depth easier to catch on board a fishing rod equipped with a nod and a jig or a float rig. If the depth beneath you a little, so as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafTypically, a mixture of vegetable baits or simply soaked pieces of hard bread, in which a fine-mesh grid is lowered onto the bottom, tied to the buoy. With the boat at a sufficient depth easier to catch on board a fishing rod equipped with a nod and a jig or a float rig. If the depth beneath you a little, so as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafTypically, a mixture of vegetable baits or simply soaked pieces of hard bread, in which a fine-mesh grid is lowered onto the bottom, tied to the buoy. With the boat at a sufficient depth easier to catch on board a fishing rod equipped with a nod and a jig or a float rig. If the depth beneath you a little, so as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafso as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafso as not to frighten away the bream, it is necessary to throw farther away from the boat, using a long and light (carbon fiber) rod. To float rod rod selected dark or black color, and shape of the float — depending on the flow and the method of catching (wiring distal casting, tooling deafetc.). The float must be easy and correct ogruzhennym and fishing line — elastic and strong with subtle water leash (its color is selected depending on water conditions). When catching a worm float rod and trotlines ideal hook № 7 -8 (for podleschika smaller), and at catching on peas, corn bread or № 4−6 (short forearm). Universal attachment deemed red muckworm (better wear just two or three grozdochkoy) vypolzok, maggot (usually 2 to 4 pieces of the hook), earthworm or podlistnik. From other animals baits should be noted apera, bloodworms (skewer under head grozdochkoy), bark beetle larvae, dragonfly larvae. From vegetable baits suitable steamed in the skin peas, breadcrumbs, oats (talker), semolina, canned corn dough with aromatic additives (anise, caraway, and others). In addition, widely used leschatniki nozzle, specific for a particular reservoir. For bream also use different bait and bait, which include animal and vegetable components with the addition of aromatic substances.

Common carp (Lat. Cyprinus haematopterus)

Carp — the name of the non-Russian, comes from the Greek word — the fruit, which is obviously given because of the extraordinary fecundity of this fish. However, the name is carp, sometimes carpia. is used only in the middle of Russia and applies exclusively to carp, living in large ponds and lakes; in south-western Russia it is replaced by another — a dolphin, and in the southeast, on the Volga and the Urals, carp is known under the Kyrgyz name of carp. Carp reaches puberty at the age of about three years and can live up to 50 years, or more. The average carp weighs about 9 kg, but it can reach 55 kg. The diet of adult fish varies by season. In spring and early summer, carp feeds on young shoots of reeds, cattail, egg capsules, pond and other aquatic plants, eagerly eats early spawning fishes and frogs. In summer, the carp diet changes somewhat — the leaves of aquatic plants, although included in the menu, recede into the background. Now the basis of nutrition consists of water insects, worms, small snails, egg capsules, molting crayfish, small leeches, etc. Willingly also eats invertebrate molluscs dreissena, small perlovets, coils, ponders. In autumn, completely abandons the plants, and switches to small aquatic insects and invertebrates. According to many anglers, carp is the most intelligent freshwater fish. Others claim that the most stupid. I think that both are right. In countries where this species is by no means the first among fishermen, for example, in America and Canada, it is easy to catch. In the rivers of continental countries, such as Spain, they go on the hook with the persistence of a suicide. And in England, where the last thirty years, the carp is the most attention, it is considered an almost elusive fish, since the fishing gear available to the fishermen was rarely allowed to pull it ashore, even if it was caught on a hook. And the fact that the more people catch carp, the harder it becomes to catch it, it becomes undeniable. Fishermen are opposed by a fish that quickly recognizes attachments and end fittings. They have to learn to trick the carp with new baits and gears and, in order to stay in the win, invent new tricks as their opponent becomes more intelligent.

The article uses materials from the sites: www.ecosystema.ru and ru.wikipedia.org .