Kubb (Scandinavian towns)
The history of the game, kubb shrouded in mystery and there are several versions about the origin of this game, which is also called Scandinavian towns.
According to one version, Chubb has more than 1000 years of history, and the origins of this game are on the island of Gotland is the largest Swedish island in the Baltic sea. Cobb, was widespread among the Vikings, who were playing, kubb at feasts, and after fierce fighting. According to some most ancient sets of Kubba made of bones and skulls of victims of the raids and robberies. However with the spread of Christianity in Northern Europe to make games from the bones of vanquished enemies was not quite politically correct and the Vikings had to make, Cobb of wood. By the end of the 14th century, Chubb has become one of the most popular games in Scandinavia, England, Germany and Northern France.
The second version was put forward by researchers from the University of Edinburgh, who believe that in 1613, Cobb was invented by the king of Sweden, Gustav III. Cobb, symbolized a war or a battle, where two armies of five soldiers fighting against each other for the glory of their kings.
And finally, the third version of the appearance Kubba says that Cobb was one of the ways of resolving conflicts in the days of the ancient Vikings and Scandinavians. The elders of the warring tribes formed a team of 2−4 players, and the match began. The losing team, including the families of players and animals to be destroyed. Accordingly, a controversial question was decided in favor of winning in Cobb clan.
Unfortunately, Cobb almost completely disappeared since the ancient times, and only local residents of the island of Gotland was also in Cobb. Thanks to their efforts, Cobb and has reached our days. In recent years, Cobb began to conquer the world and, since 1995, on Gotland hosts the annual world championship of Kubba.
The story of the game towns dates back several centuries. The mention of this game you can find in fairy tales, and ancient legends and documents pertaining to the history of Ancient Russia. Towns entered into our history as part of the national culture. The popularity of towns shows that they played: Peter the great Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov, V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) and Stalin, Kalinin and Voroshilov. The game of skittles was a popular physical exercise for many prominent figures of Russian science, culture, writers. Among them — academician I. P. Pavlov, a geneticist N. In. Timofeev-resovskii, the singer F. I. Shalyapin, music critic and composer Stasov, classics of world literature L. N. Tolstoy and Gorky.
As a sport, with unified rules, towns have formed in 1923, when Moscow hosted the first all-Union competition. In the program of the first all-Union Olympiad towns was included in 1928. In 1933 came the new rules for towns, which was identified 15 pieces and the game was largely regulated. These rules are in towns and today.
In the 60-ies of XX century, towns were probably the most popular in the city of entertainment.
Throwing balls at a target is one of the oldest games known to mankind. More than 7000 years ago the Egyptians played a game resembling modern bocce with polished rocks. Graphic image of figures, throws a ball or polished stone, date back to 5200 BC From the ancient game, modern born the basic rules of bocce. From Egypt bocce moved to Greece, around 800 BC, the Romans learned the game from the Greeks, and bocce spread all over the Roman Empire. It is known that since the beginning of the Punic wars between Rome and Carthage in the third century BC. C. this game was very popular among Roman soldiers. Then one stone — «the leader» — was laid on the ground, and it threw up the stones of bigger size, played with teams or individually. The winner was the one whose stone fell closer to the «leader.» Later in ancient Rome as balls used coconuts brought back from Africa, and eventually used hard olive wood to make bowls.
With the invasion of the barbarians and fall of the Roman Empire disappears, the game of bowls, in order to once again become popular only in the middle ages. Bocce ball became so popular that in 1319 the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV banned bocce because it distracted his subjects from military training. But the game of bocce suddenly got support from the doctors — the medical lobby from the French University of Montpellier proved the extreme usefulness of bocce as a game, was able to cure rheumatism and bocce again became legal.
But this mishap bocce is not over. In 1576, the Republic of Venice publicly condemned bocce, punished anyone who tried to play it. There was a huge fines and the most severe punishment was the curse of the Catholic Church.
Contrary to the rest of Europe, the game of bocce developed in the UK. Queen Elizabeth I and the famous pirate and Explorer sir Francis Drake spent many hours on this game. There is even a historical fact that, on 18 July, 1588, when during the game, Drake announced the approach of the Spanish fleet, sir Francis dissatisfied replied: «First finish, then deal with the Armada».
Over time, the main pillars of bocce were France and Italy. These countries had their own, differing, however, mainly terminology and technique very little, varieties of sports Boxing match. In France, for example, play on the boulevards, drinking light alcohol, and their occupation is called petanque. In Italy, preserved the ancient name, bocce, and Italian have fun on the playgrounds in front of country houses.
It is the Italian version of the game spread throughout the world due to the fact that they are interested in Americans. They prefer to roll the balls on the beach or in the office.